Three years ago, Chanel launched the first in-house movement, Calibre 1. The entire watchmaking industry was stunned by the movement. Chanel that launched the first wristwatch in 1987 had desired to produce and develop in-house movements, which is a great test for technology, design and craftsmanship. Chanel Clibre 3 made its debut at Baselworld 2018. Is Calibre 3 an audacious attempt or the result of successful breakthrough by comparing with Calibre 1 and the second movement?

Calibre 1
In the history of Chanel watchmaking, Chanel introduced ETA movements and Audemars Piguet in-house movements Cal. 3125 in the long term, but developing and designing a self-made movement as a goal is Chanel’s dream. The most difficult thing is to get started. Chanel began to develop the first self-made movement until 2011. With the front-end design and development as well as the back-end assembly test, the Monsieur De Chanel watch with Calibre 1 made its appearance at Baselworld 2016. We can know that the special display of the jump hour and the eccentric retrograde date is adopted from the design drawing. The wrong qestion is clear when somebody questioned Caliber 1 was based on an ETA basic movement. First, ETA manufacturing craftsmanship is hard to reach the standard. Second, the back of the movement tells us its unique style. With simple but powerful dial, Monsieur de Chanel men’s watch equipped with Calibre 1 redefines a new trend.

Calibre 2
Calibre 2 for ladies’ which took three-year development appeared at 2017’s Baselworld Watch Fair. Why so long? The most difficult point is to build the beauty of the movement-the balance of the camellia and the movement. It’s well known that Gabrielle Chanel loves camellias in her life. The camellia has also been the soul of the brand. It blooms perfectly in the movement, Calibre 2, presenting the fusion of the beauty and technology. Calibre 2 consists of 107 components and parts, including 21 jewels. The swing frequency extends to 28,800 per hour, and power reserve is up to 48 hours. The Chanel Première Camélia Skeleton watch equipped with Calibre 2 wins ladies’ popularity for the stereo look and flawless design.

Calibre 3
In 2018, Calibre 3 and Chanel Boy.Friend Esqueleto watch bring out the neutral style. The unusual feature of Calibre 3 is without mirror-polished process or exquisite decoration, but it doesn’t mean that the movement is technically non-existent. Black ADLC coating bears superior shock resistance and scratch resistance. For the material selection, Chanel show more possibilities to us. Chanel Boy.Friend Esqueleto Calibre 3 inherits the classic appearance from the Boy.Friend Esqueleto collection and adds more new ideas. With iconic watch case, black ADLC coating and the beige & gold plated coating frame, the Boy.Friend Esqueleto Calibre 3 overcame a series of technology problems.

The design for the skeleton dial requires higher technology. Chanel Boy.Friend Esqueleto Calibre 3 watch wants to stand out, and it must win with unique design and high-end craftsmanship. Excluding excess metals, gears are arranged in the outline of camellias, which of course is a test of mechanical engineering, because the arrangement of mechanical structures in traditional watchmaking has a certain benchmark, and it cannot be changed at will. Finally, the Boy.Friend Esqueleto Calibre 3 didn’t make us disappointed whether on the appearance or the performance. Chanel Boy.Friend Esqueleto Calibre 3, manufacture mechanical movement with manual winding, at least 55-hour power reserve. It has the esqueleto design without the balance wheel blocking as well as a shock resistant device. Available in the standard model for EUR 36,500 and the diamond version for EUR 42,500.

Omega Cal. 2500 is a very good movement. It’s based on the Omega 1120 calibre, which was itself a derivative of the popular ETA 2892-A2, one of the strongest and most widely used chronometer movements in the watchmaking industry. The movement comes in versions 2500A, 2500B, 2500C and 2500D.

When it comes to Co-Axial, we need know about it. The Cal. 2500 was the first ever to include Co-axial escapement was invented by George Daniels on its introduction in 1999. In fact, the invention was patented by him in 1974, but some asked questions that the invention shouldn’t belong to him fully because the mechanism appeared in the pocket watches, even desk clocks in a very early stage. At least, he is a delicate improver. After all, it’s hard that the Co-Axial escapement mechanism was used in the wristwatches. There are multiple factors to consider whether the mechanism works perfectly in the wristwatch. The name of Co-Axial escapement was originated from that two-tier escapement wheels share one axle.

After the patent for the Co-Axial escapement was applied by George Daniels, he visited many watch brands and tried to persuade them to choose the mechanism. He said that the mechanism could guarantee the service without maintenance for at least 8 years, but he didn’t succeed in promoting it until he met Omega. The Co-Axial escapement was even more complicated than the lever escapement. That the Co-Axial escapement could be put into mass production required higher manufacturing accuracy at that time. There is no risk that the lever escapement went along with conservatism in the watchmaking industry.

The escapement mechanism of later version of Cal. 2500 has one more gear than Cal. 1120, a dark yellow gear. The dark yellow gear occludes the second wheel and the wheel above the escape wheel closely. The shape features of the escape wheel and the greyish white wheel above the escape wheel are different from ones of common wheels. The transmission of the pallet and the escape wheel reduces frictional force. The weight fine-tuning system improve stability and accuracy. Some questions presented during the practical operation. The modified Cal. 2500, Cal. 2500A/B, their frequency was reduced to 25,200 per hour from 28,800 per hour. However, these two issues have still not been completely resolved. One reason for this is that the coaxial structure will cause damage to the escapement part in the event of a collision, because it is inherently free from frictional cushioning. Besides, the coaxial escapement requires very high manufacturing precision, so minor damage will lead to the entire escapement to fail.

Cal. 2500D, the new model is closer to the structure of Cal. 8500. With three-tier escape wheel, Cal. 2500D ensures the escapement mechanism won’t have these questions- loose parts, dislocation, etc. Therefore, the service of 2500D calibre can be extended largely. In the future, the middle and low end wristwatches of Omega collections will use Cal. 2500D for the long term.

Generally speaking, Swiss movement is the best, and Japan movement takes the second place. The watch movement includes quartz movement and mechanical movement. Japanese electronic products are made delicately, and the high quality of Japan movement is guaranteed.

Japan Movement
Though Japan quartz movement is made at a low cost, it works accurately and has good quality, low power consumption and low maintenance cost.  As the largest watchmaker and movement manufacturer in Japan, SEIKO has inherited fine tradition of Japanese enterprise whether in industrial design or marketing. SEIKO watch attracts many ordinary people for its elegance and
fair price. SEIKO mechanical movement is praised by the majority of users, building up a high brand image. To achieve higher standard, SEIKO watch is checked and passed by extreme danger and harsh environment. The lowest on of SEIKO mechanical movements is Cal.7S26. SEIKO Cal.6R20 is an upscale movement, making SEIKO watch occupy stable position in high quality mechanical watch market.

ETA Movement
ETA is not strange for those who know lots about watch. At present, ETA which was monopolized by SWATCH is the largest manufacturer to make finished movements and semi-finished movement throughout the world. ETA SA Manufacture Horlogère Suisse which is located in Switzerland has many factories to product and assemble movements in France, Germany, Thailand, Malaysia, China and so on. ETA monopolizes more than 85% movement output, and it also supplies superior movements to many famous watch brands. ETA’s main business includes: guarantee technology research of Swiss watch; develop large scale productions of cheap parts, movements and watches; master the skills of watch and machine; assemble movements and watches in bulk; self research and development about ETA. Especially ETA2824/ETA2892/ETA7750 are widely used and praised.

In general, Swiss movement is better than Japan movement. But they include different grades of movements, it is difficult to define absolutely which is the best. Whether Swiss movement or Japan movement, good quality is guaranteed.

It is well known that the core of the watch lies in the movement, which is as important as the heart of the human body. The movement greatly determines the performance of a watch. Here a brief talk on the features of ETA movement and three types of self-made movements helps you know about watches more or less.
ETA movement
ETA SA Manufacture Horlogère Suisse is the largest manufacturer in manufacturing finished movements and semi-finished movements all over the world. ETA monopolizes more than 85% movement output in Switzerland. Though ETA movement isn’t the best, it supplies a great deal of movements to many famous watch brands. As the common movements, ETA which was born earlier could be called the mature movement since it has been developing. It indeed has incomparable stability and precise durability. Which on earth is better, ETA movement or self-made movement?
It has no definite answer for that, and mostly it depends on movement grade, your propoty and your personal opinoins.
Rolex Caliber 3135

Brand                                                Rolex
Caliber Number                          3135
Movement Type                          Automatic
Jewels                                                 31
Power Reserve                            48 hours
Vibrations                                       Per Hour 28,800
Balance                                             Glucydur
Shock System                                 KIF
Hairspring                                        Nivarox
Features Date                                at 3:00
Country of Manufacture         Switzerland
Known Models                              Submariner; Sea-Dweller, Deepsea; Yacht-Master; Datejust; Datejust II
Rolex Caliber 3135 is honoured as the king of self-winding movements. The caliber 3135 first hit the market in 1988. It is a Certified Chronometer with 31 jewels, and is adjusted for five positions and temperature. The 3135 has approximately 48 hour power reserve, however, some specs listings online have been known to incorrectly round this number up to 50 hours. It has a few design quirks, such as red anodized components, a Breguet hairspring and a winding mechanism in which the axis of the weight segment is stored in synthetic ruby (normally the rotor mechanism is embedded in steel ball bearings). The movement is installed in the models Datejust, Submariner Date, Yacht-Master and in the former model Sea-Dweller 4000, which was produced between 1988 and 2008. The successor Sea-Dweller Deepsea of 2008 also uses a 3135, but with new Parachrom blue hair spring.

Omega Caliber 8500
Brand                                                Omega
Caliber Number                          8500
Movement Type                          Automatic
Jewels                                                39
Power Reserve                             60 hours
Vibrations Per Hour                  25,200bph
Hairspring                                        Silicon Si14
Shock System                                 Nivachoc
Features                                            Co-Axial Escapement, date
Country of Manufacture         Switzerland
Known Models                              Planet Ocean; Aqua Terra Mid Size Chronometer; Co-Axial Chronometer
The launch of the 8500 series of calibres back in 2007 represented an important milestone in the history of Omega brand, helping the Biel based luxury watch producer to reposition itself in the top market range. The in-house developed 8500 series of calibres uses the co-axial escapement mechanism, benefiting from technological benefits of the Daniels’ ‘fix’. The movement’s size has been boosted by 13% compared to the previous 2500 calibres series in order to suit the design of the Omega Seamaster collection. The power supply comes from the two mainspring barrels coated with a special material known within the industry as DLC (Diamond-like carbon). This is an extra feature aimed at eliminating friction.
Patek Philippe Caliber 324
Brand                                  Patek Philippe
Caliber Number                   324SC
Movement Type                  Automatic
Display                                Analog
Jewels                                 29
Power Reserve                   45 hours
Vibrations Per Hour            28,800bph
Hairspring                           Spiromax®
Country of Manufacture      Switzerland
Patek Philippe has developed many self-made movements with high performance since it began to develop self-winding movement in 1953. In 2004, Patek Philippe upgraded Cal.315 automatic movement into Cal.324. The accuracy and stability of Caliber324 are improved by changing the operation efficiency of vibration frequency and optimizing gear. Later Caliber 324 which was equipped with Spiromax® hairspring was passed by Patek Philippe Seal. Patek Philippe Aquanaut Luce Ref.5068R Ladies’ watch and Patek Philippe Calatrava Ref.5127G men’s watch are equipped with Caliber 324SC.

A watch greatly depends on the movement. The better the movement is, the more valuable the watch is. Some top watch brands have the capacity to manufacture movements themselves, which requires superb watchmaking technology, but many of watch brands are difficult to do that. Hence they will choose ETA movement.

ETA SA Manufacture Horlogere Suisse is a Swiss movement manufacturer. Founded in 1856, ETA, which is acquired by swatch group, is located in Grenchen, Switzerland now. ETA focus on manufacturing watch movements, including mechanical movement, quartz movement, clock movement and so on. These movements are supplied to many watch brands, such as Ulysse Nardin, IWC, Hublot, Breitling, Panerai, Chopard, Tudor, Tag Heuer, Baume & Mercier, Longines, Titoni, Hamilton, Mido, Tissot and so on. Some watch brands transform into those which they need on basis of ETA movements. At present, many ETA movements are available in the market.

Model/Movement/Power Reserve/Diameter/Thickness/Diaminds/Vibration/Year
ETA2801-2|Manual Winding|46Hours|25.6mm|3.35mm|17|8|1980
ETA2804-2 | Manual Winding |46Hours |25.6mm |3.35mm| 17 | 8 | 1982
ETA2824-2 | Self-winding |38Hours |25.6mm |4.60mm| 25 | 8 | 1971
ETA2834-2 | Self-winding |38Hours |29.0mm |5.05mm| 25 | 8 | 1971
ETA2836-2 | Self-winding |40Hours |25.6mm |4.60mm| 25 | 8 | 1982
ETA2846-2| Self-winding |49Hours |25.6mm |5.05mm| 21 | 6 | 1987
ETA2892A2| Self-winding |42Hours |25.6mm |3.60mm| 21 | 8 | 1983
ETA2893-1 | Self-winding |42Hours |25.6mm |4.10mm| 21 | 8 | 1983
ETA2893-2 | Self-winding |42Hours |25.6mm |4.10mm| 21 | 8 | 1992
ETA2894-2 | Self-winding |42Hours |28.0mm |6.10mm| 37 | 8 | 1996
ETA2895-1 | Self-winding |42Hours |25.6mm |6.10mm| 30 | 8 | 1996
ETA2896 | Self-winding |42Hours |25.6mm |4.85mm| 22 | 8 | 2003
ETA2897 | Self-winding |42Hours |25.6mm |4.85mm| 22 | 8 | 2004
ETA6497-2|Manual Winding | 46Hours |36.6mm |4.5mm | 17 | 5 | 1950
ETA6498-2|Manual Winding | 46Hours |36.6mm |4.5mm | 17 | 5 | 1950
ETA7001 |Manual Winding | 42Hours |23.3mm |2.5mm | 17 | 6 | 1973
ETA7750 |Self-winding | 44Hours |30.0mm |7.9mm | 25 | 8 | 1973
ETA7751 |Self-winding | 44Hours |30.0mm |7.9mm | 25 | 8 | 1973
ETA7753 |Self-winding | 44Hours |30.0mm |7.9mm | 25 | 8 | 2002
ETA7754 |Self-winding | 46Hours |30.0mm |7.9mm | 25 | 8 | 2003
ETA7758 |Self-winding | 44Hours |30.0mm |7.9mm | 25 | 8 | 2003
ETA7760 |Manual Winding | 44Hours |30.0mm |7.0mm | 17 | 8 |2003
ETA7765 |Manual Winding | 44Hours |30.0mm |7.0mm | 17 | 8 |2003
ETA7768 |Manual Winding | 44Hours |30.0mm |7.0mm | 17 | 8 |2003
ETA7770 |Self-winding | 44Hours |30.0mm |7.9mm | 17 | 8 |2002
ETA2681 |Self-winding |38 Hours |19.4mm |4.8mm | 25 | 8 | 1971
ETA2685 |Self-winding |38 Hours |19.4mm |5.35mm| 25 | 8 | 1971
ETA2688 |Self-winding |44 Hours |19.4mm |5.35mm| 17 | 6 | 1871

Emphatically introduce three famous ETA movements: ETA2824/ETA2892/ETA7750.

As one of the most common movements, ETA2824 movement has four features of high precision, high stability, low price and self-winding. Due to its thickness, many sporty watches are equipped with ETA2824 movements. For instance, Breitling Colt, Tudor, Maurice Lacroix Masterpiece and Sinn choose ETA2824 or improved version.

ETA2892 movement was considered as one of the most stable mmovements. After the mechanical watch revivals, it is also the representative work among Swiss Senior movements. Due to thin thickness, it is developed into movements with different complex functions. Obviously, ETA 2892 is more superior than ETA 2824.

Valjoux7750 is the most famous movement in Valjoux company. ETA7750 has took the place of Valjoux7750 since
Valjoux company was acquired by ETA. Many famous self-winding chronograph and complicated watch are equipped with ETA7750 movement. What’s more, ETA7750 adopts a push-rod timing structure, making the movement simple, durable and easy to maintain. Generally, expensive watch brand selects the movement.

ETA SA Manufacture Horlogere Suisse supplies many movements to famous brands. Thus it can be seen that its movements are made exquisitely.