Everything is inseparable from the foundation. I always think that the watch movement is the same. For example, Patek Philippe’s basic movement cal.324, based on the addition of various functional modules, has created various functions based on cal.324 or complex movements (such as Cal.324 S IRM QA LU, is the addition of the power reserve, perpetual calendar window date display and moon phase). Therefore, a basic movement is very important for a watchmaking brand, and a basic movement as thin as possible and small means that it can add more functions.

The basic movements of various models from various brands have different characteristics, but the basic structural principles are similar. The energy is stored in the spring by a winding or an automatic pendulum, and the energy is transmitted to the oscillating system through the escapement for a long working period. At the same time, the oscillating system is released to the constant velocity movement of the escapement and transmitted to the pointer mechanism to indicate the time.

Recently, I got a few of the watches with the calendar display function equipped with the automatic original movement, the movement reference is not mentioned, let us have a glimpse.

Tool Chapters:


Let’s first talk about the disassembly tool. First, you need a special magnifying glass. Since the parts of the watch are exquisite, so the purpose of the magnifier is to make each parts be visible to prevent damage during disassembly and assembly. It is usually necessary to prepare 3 to 12 times a magnifying glass of different magnifications, but this time I only disassembled the parts, so a low multiple prepared is enough.

Movement Fixed Base

The fixed seat is to fix movement, making it easy to disassemble. You need to lock gently, don’t use too much force to avoid hurting the board.

Special Screwdriver

The whole set of special screwdrivers will be available on the work table of each watchmaker. There are different combinations of 10, 9 and bulk. You can replace the blade by loosening the screw fixing hole on the screwdriver. Each knife has a color to distinguish the specifications, and the outer circle number represents the diameter of the knife. Use the size of the screw first and select the appropriate size, so as not to damage the screw cap or accidentally slip the hand to scratch the board.

Antimagnetic Tweezer

The tamper-resistant tweezers are also necessary. When the parts are gripped, the parts are protected from magnetism. Usually 2 to 3 pieces are enough. Thicker tips are usually used to pick up general parts such as movements, splints, screws, gears, etc. Small parts are usually used with thinner tips. Do not use too much force. When picking up parts, do not pinch the plane. It is best to find the appropriate place to pick it in a vertical way to prevent the parts from being scratched by improper force.

I got a separate movement this time, and there is no hands. Therefore, there are fewer steps in disassembly, no need to open the bottom cover, and there is no need to pull the pointer. But let’s introduce it here.

Universal Watch Opener

Watch Hands Puller

The opener can be used to open the screw-in bottom cover, adjust the opener to the appropriate size of the watch, press it and rotate it to the left to open the back cover. It is better to use it with the watch fixed base. The hand puller is used to remove the pointer, and there are also unused hand pullers depending on the model.

The importance of the movement for the entire watch is well known, and without the movement, the watch will not work. What are the movements of the watches? Just follow the blogger to have a profound understanding about watch movements knowledge in different types.

  1. Manual Winding Movement,the earliest movement spring must be through “human intervention”, the wearer must manually rotate the clockwork on the crown to work normally, usually winding up in 24 hours. The hand-wound movement was also the earliest machine, and its ancestors used it on pocket watches as early as the 15th century. It is now also used by some high-end brands, but more wearers always forget the “winding” so that “stopping” their time.

  1. The Self-winding(Automatic) Movement is wound by the motion of the watch. Through a swinging oscillating operation, the spring of the watch is slowly tightened, and the watch realizes the effect of “self-running”. The self-winding movement is now the choice of most mechanical watches. As long as it is worn every day, there is no need to wind up, and the hairspring that is evenly stretched with the movement is more conducive to the accuracy of time.

  1. When it comes to Quartz Movements, we must first mention the “quartz crisis” of the 1970s and 1980s. It was the birth of it that shocked the entire Swiss watch industry, causing many European mechanical watch factories to declare bankruptcy, ending uptheir watchmaking careers, it is also precisely because of its existence urging the birth of the “Swatch” watch, it can be said that a generation is stronger than a generation.

The quartz movement, which was made by W.A Mason in the 1920s, was later put into production by the Japanese SEIKO Company in 1969. Its low cost, extremely high accuracy time and more additional features have become people’s the first choice when purchasing watches, and it has also caused a huge impact on the mechanical watches that have been used for a long time.

In fact, the principle of the quartz movement is that the balance without oscillation is used as a metronome, but only a quartz oscillator, which oscillates through electric energy (battery). There are a lot of women’s models choosing quartz movements from the perspective of thickness and aesthetics.

  1. The self-produced movement of the watchmaking workshop may be a manual winding movement, or it may be an automatic movement, which refers to the key parts of the movement, such as the main clamping plate, the bridge and the splint, all of them areself-produced by the workshop themselves, so they can name the model by themselves.

The Swatch Group’s ETA movement was the main supplier of many brands before, but in 2002,  Swatch Group announced that it would no longer supply ETA’s blank movement (many brands will use ETA’s blank movement to process, then advocating it is a self-produced movement), which led to the emergence of many watchmaking workshops.

Brands Movements

ETA, the full name of ETA SA Manufacture Horlogère Suisse, is a Swiss manufacturer of blank movements, including mechanical/quartz watches and clock movements, which is owned by the Swiss Swatch Group, the world’s largest watch group, ETA itself was merged and acquired by a number of movement factories, including the famous Adolf Schild (AS), Valjoux, Unitas and so on.

ETA’s main product is focused on mechanical movements, and many different types are produced. In addition to the Swatch Group’s watch brands (such as Longines, Omega, Swatch and Tissot), it is also a supplier of watch manufacturers’ movements. For example, Breitling, Fortis, Innag, Plum, etc., even Rolex, ETA movements have appeared in their products (Rolex used the Valjoux movement in its Daytona series), while IWC, Oris, TAG Heuer and Tudor and others used a movement modified based on the ETA movement.

Miyota is the manufacturer of the blank movement under the Japan Citizen Watch, one of the world’s largest blank clock manufacturers. Established in 1959, the name is “Miyota Precision Co. Ltd.” In 1991, it was renamed Miyota Co. Ltd. In 2005, through the exchange of equipment, it became a subsidiary of Citizen Watch, and changed its name to the current one.

Miyota’s main products are quartz or mechanical watch movements, quartz crystal oscillators, LCD backlights, CMOS sensors and micro LCDs.

Through the knowledge of these movements, it can be seen that no matter which kind of movement, the core of the watch’s aura and life is given, and the hundreds of wheel trains and parts inside are meticulously matched, so that the watch can keep running.

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The shock protection system is widely used in mechanical watches, a key part. It protects the wheel’s delicate pivots from damage in the event of physical shock, such as if the watch is dropped. Its performance is limited, and it may be broken if the watch was damaged by violent shock. In addition, the shock also causes the disorder of hair spring and the damage of other components and parts.

1. Breguet Parachute Susrension
Parachute Susrension is the earliest shock protection system, made by Abraham-Louis Breguet. The bearing was shortened and changed into cone, fixing the concave shaft block. The central spindle will be deviated from the center under the shock, but it isn’t easy to be broken.

2. Incabloc Shock Protection System
It was invented in 1934 by Swiss engineers Georges Braunschweig and Fritz Marti, at Universal Escapements, Ltd, of La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. It is manufactured by Incabloc, S.A. The Incabloc system uses a “lyre-shaped” spring to allow the delicate bearings to shift in their settings under impact, until a stronger shoulder of the staff contacts the strong metal endpiece, so that the pivots and bearings don’t have to bear the force of the impact. When the impact is over, the springs guide the parts back to their original positions. It’s widely used in Swiss-made mechanical watches. Many of ETA movements are equipped with Incabloc shock protection system. Some of top watch brands adopt it as well, such as A. Lange & Söhne, Glashütte Original and Patek Philippe. After World War II, it nearly occupied the watchmaking market, even it required watchmakers to engrave “Incabloc” on the dial. Rolex rejected the requirement,so it has been favoring KIF since then.

3. KIF Shock Protection
KIF is the name of the company that produces anti-shock systems. KIF was developed in the 1930’s. KIF has started producing components and parts of clocks and wristwatches since 1944. Its products are adopted by top and luxury watch brands, reflecting its professional capability. KIF shock absorber system prevents a watch balance staff from breaking by allowing it to move slightly, both laterally and vertically, using a spring-mounted jewel setting. Kif can be recognized by the golden 3-leaf or 4-leaf clover shaped spring clip around a ruby at the top of the balance. In fact, KIF and Incabloc have similar performance, but top or luxury brands prefer KIF. I think high-end in-house movements with KIF distances themselves from ETA movements with Incabloc.

4. Etashoc Shock Protection
Etashoc shock protection system is the cheapest model, a tailor-made model according to ETA. The early ETA 2836 and ETA 2824 were equipped with Etashoc. Tissot and Nido entry-level watches use the Etashoc. Its weakness is that its bearing is thicker than Incabloc, so the movement with Etashoc shock protection system is less accurate. It’s widely used in affordable watches.

5. Paraflex Shock Absorber
It’s mentioned that Rolex has been favoring KIF since 1940s.Rolex refuses to attach itself to other companies on watch manufacturing and innovation for long term. Rolex ended the relationship with KIF in 2005, but it still favors KIF. Paraflex was developed by Rolex independently, more complicated than Incabloc and KIF. It increases 50% anti-shock performance by KIF and lengthens the service life of the movement. Calibre 3131, calibre 3135, calibre 3555 and calibre 3186 are equipped with KIF, and the new models including calibre 3132, calibre 3136, calibre 3156, calibre 3187 and calibre 9001 comes with Paraflex.

6. Nivachoc Shock Protection Absorber
After Rolex developed Paraflex shock protection system independently, Breguet, a member of Swatch group, published Nivachoc shock absorber system in 2006. It’s used in Breguet calibre 777Q in the beginning. Now Omega, Longines, and Rado use Nivachoc.

Swan-neck Regulator
A high-end regulator pin: Swan-neck regulator. Swan neck, a collet fixing the end of the hairspring, can produce aesthetic effect. Patek Philippe, Vacheron Constantin and Chopard has applied swan-neck regulator to their in-house mechanical movements. Swan-neck regulator has three effects. First, it can stick the regulator clip tightly. Second, it can ensure accuracy be adjusted to a satisfying and accurate range. Third, it embodies the heritage of decoration and the culture of watchmaking, and it is also a symbol of the advanced watch. Besides, snail-shaped regulator has been applied to the pocket watch.

Technology Innovation on Swan-neck Regulator
To control vibration period of balance wheel by adjusting the length of hairspring is simple and effective. Swan-neck regulator does well in solving displacement of balance spring holder. Under violent vibration, the malposition of hairspring controlled by regulator clip and hairspring stud will cause the deflection. The puzzle has been overcome. Swan-neck regulator was applied for a patent in Munich, Germany and numbered “EP2290477”.

2. Free Sprung Balance
Free Sprung balance has better stability and isochronism than regulator pin.If I have to look for a flaw, the collocation of free sprung balance and Breguet spring will make the balance wheel higher above 1 millimetre. Free Sprung regulating tool is to adjust vibration period by adjusting wheel weight.It mainly includes Rolex Microstella and Patek Philippe Gyromax.

Patek Philippe Gyromax
When it come to Free-sprung, U-shaped Gyromax weights in gold from Patek Philippe occurs to me. The Gyromax regulating tool has been used for more than 60 years. To rotate the gap toward the central axis of the balance can make the watch go slow. The number of weights is eight generally, and there’re 4 and 6 weights. PP Calibre CH 28-520 has silicon balance wheel with 4 weights in gold. Don’t look down these weights, they can affect amplitude to 180 degrees, practical, reliable, beautiful. On August 18, 1948, Patek Philippe applied for two patents: CH280067 and CH261431. CH280067 is on how U-shaped weights were assembled on the balance. At that time, weights were set in the flutes so that it can reduce air friction. The setting is similar to Chopard’s flyer”variner”. With the progress of technology, the difficulty of processing and manufacturing has been reduced. CH261431 is on the specification design for U-shaped weights.

Rolex Microstella
In fact, Rolex Microstella has a longer history than Patek Philippe Gyromax. During the World War Ⅱ,Rolex applied for a patent No.CHX2239668 which was invented by AEGLER HANS HERMANN, an early partner of Rolex. Rolex ordered movements from him at that time. The edge of the balance wheel was assembled with lead screws and nuts in gold.With the development of technology, Microstella regulating is designed in its interior side. The two patents have 20-year period of validity. After that, any of watch brands can use these patents.