The shock protection system is widely used in mechanical watches, a key part. It protects the wheel’s delicate pivots from damage in the event of physical shock, such as if the watch is dropped. Its performance is limited, and it may be broken if the watch was damaged by violent shock. In addition, the shock also causes the disorder of hair spring and the damage of other components and parts.

1. Breguet Parachute Susrension
Parachute Susrension is the earliest shock protection system, made by Abraham-Louis Breguet. The bearing was shortened and changed into cone, fixing the concave shaft block. The central spindle will be deviated from the center under the shock, but it isn’t easy to be broken.

2. Incabloc Shock Protection System
It was invented in 1934 by Swiss engineers Georges Braunschweig and Fritz Marti, at Universal Escapements, Ltd, of La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. It is manufactured by Incabloc, S.A. The Incabloc system uses a “lyre-shaped” spring to allow the delicate bearings to shift in their settings under impact, until a stronger shoulder of the staff contacts the strong metal endpiece, so that the pivots and bearings don’t have to bear the force of the impact. When the impact is over, the springs guide the parts back to their original positions. It’s widely used in Swiss-made mechanical watches. Many of ETA movements are equipped with Incabloc shock protection system. Some of top watch brands adopt it as well, such as A. Lange & Söhne, Glashütte Original and Patek Philippe. After World War II, it nearly occupied the watchmaking market, even it required watchmakers to engrave “Incabloc” on the dial. Rolex rejected the requirement,so it has been favoring KIF since then.

3. KIF Shock Protection
KIF is the name of the company that produces anti-shock systems. KIF was developed in the 1930’s. KIF has started producing components and parts of clocks and wristwatches since 1944. Its products are adopted by top and luxury watch brands, reflecting its professional capability. KIF shock absorber system prevents a watch balance staff from breaking by allowing it to move slightly, both laterally and vertically, using a spring-mounted jewel setting. Kif can be recognized by the golden 3-leaf or 4-leaf clover shaped spring clip around a ruby at the top of the balance. In fact, KIF and Incabloc have similar performance, but top or luxury brands prefer KIF. I think high-end in-house movements with KIF distances themselves from ETA movements with Incabloc.

4. Etashoc Shock Protection
Etashoc shock protection system is the cheapest model, a tailor-made model according to ETA. The early ETA 2836 and ETA 2824 were equipped with Etashoc. Tissot and Nido entry-level watches use the Etashoc. Its weakness is that its bearing is thicker than Incabloc, so the movement with Etashoc shock protection system is less accurate. It’s widely used in affordable watches.

5. Paraflex Shock Absorber
It’s mentioned that Rolex has been favoring KIF since 1940s.Rolex refuses to attach itself to other companies on watch manufacturing and innovation for long term. Rolex ended the relationship with KIF in 2005, but it still favors KIF. Paraflex was developed by Rolex independently, more complicated than Incabloc and KIF. It increases 50% anti-shock performance by KIF and lengthens the service life of the movement. Calibre 3131, calibre 3135, calibre 3555 and calibre 3186 are equipped with KIF, and the new models including calibre 3132, calibre 3136, calibre 3156, calibre 3187 and calibre 9001 comes with Paraflex.

6. Nivachoc Shock Protection Absorber
After Rolex developed Paraflex shock protection system independently, Breguet, a member of Swatch group, published Nivachoc shock absorber system in 2006. It’s used in Breguet calibre 777Q in the beginning. Now Omega, Longines, and Rado use Nivachoc.

Swan-neck Regulator
A high-end regulator pin: Swan-neck regulator. Swan neck, a collet fixing the end of the hairspring, can produce aesthetic effect. Patek Philippe, Vacheron Constantin and Chopard has applied swan-neck regulator to their in-house mechanical movements. Swan-neck regulator has three effects. First, it can stick the regulator clip tightly. Second, it can ensure accuracy be adjusted to a satisfying and accurate range. Third, it embodies the heritage of decoration and the culture of watchmaking, and it is also a symbol of the advanced watch. Besides, snail-shaped regulator has been applied to the pocket watch.

Technology Innovation on Swan-neck Regulator
To control vibration period of balance wheel by adjusting the length of hairspring is simple and effective. Swan-neck regulator does well in solving displacement of balance spring holder. Under violent vibration, the malposition of hairspring controlled by regulator clip and hairspring stud will cause the deflection. The puzzle has been overcome. Swan-neck regulator was applied for a patent in Munich, Germany and numbered “EP2290477”.

2. Free Sprung Balance
Free Sprung balance has better stability and isochronism than regulator pin.If I have to look for a flaw, the collocation of free sprung balance and Breguet spring will make the balance wheel higher above 1 millimetre. Free Sprung regulating tool is to adjust vibration period by adjusting wheel weight.It mainly includes Rolex Microstella and Patek Philippe Gyromax.

Patek Philippe Gyromax
When it come to Free-sprung, U-shaped Gyromax weights in gold from Patek Philippe occurs to me. The Gyromax regulating tool has been used for more than 60 years. To rotate the gap toward the central axis of the balance can make the watch go slow. The number of weights is eight generally, and there’re 4 and 6 weights. PP Calibre CH 28-520 has silicon balance wheel with 4 weights in gold. Don’t look down these weights, they can affect amplitude to 180 degrees, practical, reliable, beautiful. On August 18, 1948, Patek Philippe applied for two patents: CH280067 and CH261431. CH280067 is on how U-shaped weights were assembled on the balance. At that time, weights were set in the flutes so that it can reduce air friction. The setting is similar to Chopard’s flyer”variner”. With the progress of technology, the difficulty of processing and manufacturing has been reduced. CH261431 is on the specification design for U-shaped weights.

Rolex Microstella
In fact, Rolex Microstella has a longer history than Patek Philippe Gyromax. During the World War Ⅱ,Rolex applied for a patent No.CHX2239668 which was invented by AEGLER HANS HERMANN, an early partner of Rolex. Rolex ordered movements from him at that time. The edge of the balance wheel was assembled with lead screws and nuts in gold.With the development of technology, Microstella regulating is designed in its interior side. The two patents have 20-year period of validity. After that, any of watch brands can use these patents.

Accuracy of a timepiece is significant. Taking the ship’s clock as an example, accumulative voyage error will reach to 27 kilometers in two months if the clock speed is affected by one second per day. If a mechanical wristwatch daily error is more than 10 seconds, wearers can feel that obviously. What can make a wristwatch work more accurate? To adjust vibration period is the most direct and the most commonly used method, so the adjustment device appear significant and pivotal like an auto gearbox. Fine time adjustment is a critical component to judge the quality of a wristwatch or a movement. For a movement, the same model will be ranked, because it is equipped with different levels of adjustment devices. ETA movements equipped with different levels of balance springs, balance wheels, absorber devices and adjustment devices are divided into the Standard, Elaborated, Top and Chronometer. So are top movements.

What’s the fine adjustment?
A mechanical watch made up of at least more than one hundred components and parts seems sophisticated, but its actual principle is simple. The spring power is transmitted to the escapement mechanism through some groups of gears.The hands are assembled in the gear transmission device, and the rotation speed of the gears must be controlled well if accurate time is wanted. It’s the same as the truth that the tap control the water velocity. The task that controls the rotation speed of central hands falls on the terminal escapement mechanism, balance wheel, balance spring and adjustment device. What can affect the accuracy of a watch? The mechanical oscillator and the vibration period. The balance wheel and the hairspring swing back and forth, and the maximum angle is called peak-to-peak amplitude. How to control the amplitude or vibration period? Two ways. One is to adjust the actual working length of the hairspring with regulator pin, the most common way. The other is to adjust the balance wheel weight.

1. Regulator Pin
Regulator pin is the most commonly used to adjust the accuracy of a mechanical watch. That to truncate the length of the hairspring shorten vibration period drives a mechanical watch go faster. On the contrary, the vibration period get longer as the hairspring is lengthened, so the watch will go slower. The most typical regulator pin is made up of four parts: eccentric screw, V-shaped part on the head of vernier clip, hairspring stud and regulator clip. The way to adjust the length of the balance spring with regulator pin has birth defects. The regulator clip used to control hairspring working length can increase deformation of the balance spring when the spring is working. The part opposite to the regulator clip deforms the most seriously. The deformation will destroy elasticity of the spring, and it will cause instability of vibration. It’s very important for a mechanical watch to keep stable forever. In addition, regulator pin is easy to be affected by the change of spring torque, temperature variation and shock. This is why almost all chronometer movements use weight used on the balance and double-deck hairspring.These wristwatches with eccentric-screw regulator pin are not expensive. Among top watch brands, I’m afraid that only Ulysse Nardin has such watches whose movement are based on ETA models.

Brand: Rolex
Model: cal. 3135
Diameter: 28.5mm
Thickness: 6mm
Vibration Frequency: 28,800 MPH
Jewel: 31 pieces
Power Reserve: 50 hours
Function: instantaneous jump date, hour-minute-second
Balance Wheel: four-arm alloy balance
Weight: 4 pieces (2 adjustable weights included)
Hairspring: Parachrom balance spring
Shock System: Kif shock absorber device
Known Models: Submariner, Sea-Dweller, Deepsea, Yacht-Master, Datejust, Datejust II

Rolex Submariner divers watch ref. 116610LV-97200 with Calibre 3135

Cal. 3135, a self-winding mechanical movement is entirely developed and manufactured by Rolex. Like all Rolex Perpetual movements, the 3135 is a certified Swiss chronometer, a designation reserved for high-precision watches that have successfully passed the Swiss Official Chronometer Testing Institute (COSC) tests. Due to stable and accurate performance, it has win widespread praise from other watch brands in the industry and customers since it was launched formally in 1988. After 30 years of development, Cal. 3135 is still the king of automatic movements, a Rolex basic movement which is used most widely in Rolex watches for now. Here I analyze its strength and weakness in details.

Calibre 3135

Most of Rolex Date men’s watches are equipped with Cal. 3135, for example, Rolex Submariner green watch reference 116610. Some of Rolex ladies’ watches for small diameter are equipped with Cal. 2235 self-winding movements. The difference between cal. 3135 and cal. 2235 is the size, the diameter of cal. 2235 is 20 mm.

Cal. 3135 consists of 195 components and parts, as far as I know. Based on cal. 3035, cal. 3135 has more stable and excellent performance after optimized. The balance cock is developed from single fulcrum to double-pivot structure.

From the pallet, the escape wheel and three wheels, we can easily get the information that the diameter and teeth of each wheel are the same, so that the escapement can greatly reduce power consumption.

The eleven components and parts make up a self-winding system. The red gears with TEFLON treatment has excellent resistance to wear, corrosion and friction.

Two yellow gold gears above will be used to stop the balance wheel when the crown is pilled out.

In addition to delicate design, the accuracy is also affected by materials. Parachrom balance hairspring made of niobium and zirconium and oxygen-containing alloy is applied to Cal. 3135, offering greater resistance to shocks and to temperature variations. Its architecture, in common with all Oyster watch movements, makes it singularly reliable.

There isn’t a flawless and perfect thing in the world. Its weakness isn’t known by many people. If the watch with cal. 3135 gets good maintenance, there won’t be big issues. Generally, the end of the automatic axle is easy to be frayed. The issues come along as the abrasion comes out. The long-term abrasion will lead to increase the gap. Slowly, the wheel loses normal balance, then the plywood will be scratched. The worse status is that the coating has lost its color. So regular maintenance is necessary.

Many have been clear about IWC supply movements and one family of self-made movements. Next, the rest in use will be shown below.

Cal. 51XXX / Cal. 52XXX
Cal. 51XXX and cal. 52XXX are two good models of the 50000-calibre family, featuring seven days’ power reserve. The old version cal. 51XXX has 21,600 VPN. The second generation Cal. 52XXX was introduced in 2015, with a bidirectional Pellaton pawl-winding system. Two barrels provides seven-day power reserve. The indexless balance with a frequency of 4 hertz (28,800 beats per hour). As a model in 51XXX-calibre family, cal. 51111 applies to the Pilot’s 7-Days. Cal. 52110 and cal. 52010 are basic movements in 52XXX-calibre family, and their extended versions apply to the Pilot’s watches and the Portugieser Family. Cal. 52850 is added to the calendar display on the basis of basic movements. Cal. 52610 with calendar display patented by IWC, moon phase and four-digit year display is a representative movement with calendar display. Cal. 52615, an extended version, has South-North moon phase.

Cal. 52610

Cal. 59XXX
Cal. 59210 is a basic movement of high-end movement 59000-calibre family, manufacture mechanical movement with manual winding. It provides eight days’ power reserve. The basic versions include cal. 59060, cal. 59230, cal. 59215, cal. 59220 and cal. 59210. The advanced versions are cal. 59360, cal. 59800 and cal. 59900. Cal. 59360 with column wheel has date display, 60-minute timer and power reserve indicator. Cal. 59800 with moon phase. Cal. 59900 with tourbillon is a grand complicated version. 59XXX-calibre family includes different movements with different functions from the basic movements to complicated movements. The Portofino Family collection with cal. 59XXX has been the high-end products. In future, it’s possible the calendar versions will came out.

Cal. 59360

Cal. 89XXX
The core technology of IWC focuses on long power, chronograph, perpetual calendar and tourbillon, since most of in-house movements features those above. Now, cal. 89361, one of core in-house chronograph movement, widely applies to the main collection. An absolute widely-used chronograph movement in all IWC movements. With the functions are added to the basic movement, many complicated movements came out. Cal. 89900 with tourbillon chronograph. Cal. 89630 with four-digit year calendar chronograph. Cal. 89801 with month-day-date display chronograph. Cal. 89760, a GMT chronograph movement. Cal. 89365, a new model based on cal. 89361, is an automatic winding chronograph movement. These in-house movements proves researchment and development capabilities of IWC.

cal. 89361

Cal. 89760

Cal. 98XXX
Cal. 98XXX, manufacture mechanical movement with manual winding. Its basic model is cal. 98300, a revised version of cal. 98295. It’s also called the “Jones Arrow” movement, which applies to IWC Vintage watches in order to honor Florentine Aristo Jones, the U.S. founder of IWC. There are mainly two models-cal. 98900 with tourbillon and cal. 98950 with minute repeater system in 98XXX-calibre family. They’re grand complicated movements.

IWC Portugieser Chronograph Watch with cal. 98950

Cal. 94900
As one of the most complicated movements in IWC, cal. 94900 has both constant-force tourbillon and astronomical display. IWC Portugieser Sidérale Scafusia IW5041-01 is equipped with cal. 94900.

cal. 94900

IWC has far more movements than those. Due to the replacements of old and new movements, the old models are used rarely, for example, 80000-calibre family. Judging from in-house movements, IWC shows its capability on modifying, developing, processing movements. Cal 69370 and cal. 69375 fill in the gaps of self-made entry level chronograph movements. IWC will release entry level automatic movements with hour, minute and small second hands. Hence, IWC in-house movements will form a strong team.

IWC is a reputable wristwatch manufacturer with good sales. When it comes to IWC, IWC Portugieser Chronograph watch and Portugieser Automatic 7-Days watch occur to our minds. But, I’m going to introduce IWC movements instead of IWC wristwatches. As we all know, the movement determines the value of a watch, and the more advanced the movement is, the more valuable the wristwatch is. IWC watches all have nice appearances, and IWC has kept trying its best to develop in-house movements to break away from supply movements. After all IWC has been fallen behind Rolex, Omega, Panerai on the development of self-made movements.

IWC has made clear that it owns 60% in-house movements, and the rest comes from ETA and Sellita. What’s more, the two companies produce universal movements according to the demands of IWC, even the accuracy of these movements reaches up to 0/+7 error. From the in-house movement project and the new-built watchmaking factory, we know that more and more self-made movements will come out.

Existing movements
The existing movements of IWC include Cal. 30XXX, Cal. 35XXX, Cal. 51XXX,Cal. 52XXX, Cal. 59XXX, Cal. 69XXX, Cal. 75XXX,Cal. 79XXX, Cal. 80XXX, Cal. 89XXX, Cal. 94XXX, Cal. 98XXX.

Supply Movements
Cal. 30XXX (ETA)
The models are based on ETA movements. Cal. 30110 and cal. 30120 left, and they’re based on ETA 2892-A2. IWC Pilot’s watch Mark XVIII is usually equipped with Cal. 30110. The Aquatimer Family watch limited edition is equipped with cal. 30120.


Cal. 35XXX (Sellita)
IWC often uses Cal. 35XXX based on Sellita SW300-1. IWC Cal. 35111 is equivalent to ETA 2892. Models with three central hands of the Portofino Family, Da Vinci Family, Ingenieur Family and Pilot’s Watches are equipped with cal. 35111. Cal. 35750 moon phase is uesd in the Portofino Family. Cal. 35700 GMT Day & night is used in the Portofino GMT watch.

IWC Ingenieur Family W125

IWC-Pilots-Watch-Mark-XVIII Special Edition with cal. 35111

Cal. 79XXX (ETA 7500)
IWC Purtugieser Chronograph watch is equipped with the IWC movement based on ETA 7750. IWC repolished ETA 7750 well. To this day, IWC Portugieser Grande Complication watch Ref. IW377601 limited of 250 pieces is sold for $ 283,000 USD. It is cal. 79091. The basic model cal. 79320 applies to the Pilot’s watches, the Aquatimer Family. The upgraded version cal. 79420 was added to split second chronograph parts on the basis of ETA 7750. The Portugieser Chronograph watch with cal. 79350, a simple edition is one of the most popular Portugieser Chronograph watches.

IWC-Portugieser-Grande-Complication-watch Ref. IW377601

Cal. 75XXX(SW 500)
The only Cal. 75320 with three sub-dials and calendar display left to be used in Portofino Family.

The above is that all basic supply movements of IWC. IWC has developed in-house basic movements to replace some of supply movements gradually since 2016.

Self-made Movements
Cal. 69000 (Basic version)
Cal. 69XXX includes two versions, cal. 69370 and cal. 69375. Cal. 69370, 33 jewels, 46 hours of power reserve, self-winding chronograph movement with date introduced in 2016. It features an automatic pawl winding system. IWC Ingenieur Family W125 with Cal. 69370 is limited to 750 pieces. Cal. 69375 applies to the Ingenieur Family. The Portugieser Chronograph collection and the Pilot’s Chronograph watches will be equipped with Cal. 69375 in future.

Three years ago, Chanel launched the first in-house movement, Calibre 1. The entire watchmaking industry was stunned by the movement. Chanel that launched the first wristwatch in 1987 had desired to produce and develop in-house movements, which is a great test for technology, design and craftsmanship. Chanel Clibre 3 made its debut at Baselworld 2018. Is Calibre 3 an audacious attempt or the result of successful breakthrough by comparing with Calibre 1 and the second movement?

Calibre 1
In the history of Chanel watchmaking, Chanel introduced ETA movements and Audemars Piguet in-house movements Cal. 3125 in the long term, but developing and designing a self-made movement as a goal is Chanel’s dream. The most difficult thing is to get started. Chanel began to develop the first self-made movement until 2011. With the front-end design and development as well as the back-end assembly test, the Monsieur De Chanel watch with Calibre 1 made its appearance at Baselworld 2016. We can know that the special display of the jump hour and the eccentric retrograde date is adopted from the design drawing. The wrong qestion is clear when somebody questioned Caliber 1 was based on an ETA basic movement. First, ETA manufacturing craftsmanship is hard to reach the standard. Second, the back of the movement tells us its unique style. With simple but powerful dial, Monsieur de Chanel men’s watch equipped with Calibre 1 redefines a new trend.

Calibre 2
Calibre 2 for ladies’ which took three-year development appeared at 2017’s Baselworld Watch Fair. Why so long? The most difficult point is to build the beauty of the movement-the balance of the camellia and the movement. It’s well known that Gabrielle Chanel loves camellias in her life. The camellia has also been the soul of the brand. It blooms perfectly in the movement, Calibre 2, presenting the fusion of the beauty and technology. Calibre 2 consists of 107 components and parts, including 21 jewels. The swing frequency extends to 28,800 per hour, and power reserve is up to 48 hours. The Chanel Première Camélia Skeleton watch equipped with Calibre 2 wins ladies’ popularity for the stereo look and flawless design.

Calibre 3
In 2018, Calibre 3 and Chanel Boy.Friend Esqueleto watch bring out the neutral style. The unusual feature of Calibre 3 is without mirror-polished process or exquisite decoration, but it doesn’t mean that the movement is technically non-existent. Black ADLC coating bears superior shock resistance and scratch resistance. For the material selection, Chanel show more possibilities to us. Chanel Boy.Friend Esqueleto Calibre 3 inherits the classic appearance from the Boy.Friend Esqueleto collection and adds more new ideas. With iconic watch case, black ADLC coating and the beige & gold plated coating frame, the Boy.Friend Esqueleto Calibre 3 overcame a series of technology problems.

The design for the skeleton dial requires higher technology. Chanel Boy.Friend Esqueleto Calibre 3 watch wants to stand out, and it must win with unique design and high-end craftsmanship. Excluding excess metals, gears are arranged in the outline of camellias, which of course is a test of mechanical engineering, because the arrangement of mechanical structures in traditional watchmaking has a certain benchmark, and it cannot be changed at will. Finally, the Boy.Friend Esqueleto Calibre 3 didn’t make us disappointed whether on the appearance or the performance. Chanel Boy.Friend Esqueleto Calibre 3, manufacture mechanical movement with manual winding, at least 55-hour power reserve. It has the esqueleto design without the balance wheel blocking as well as a shock resistant device. Available in the standard model for EUR 36,500 and the diamond version for EUR 42,500.

Omega Cal. 2500 is a very good movement. It’s based on the Omega 1120 calibre, which was itself a derivative of the popular ETA 2892-A2, one of the strongest and most widely used chronometer movements in the watchmaking industry. The movement comes in versions 2500A, 2500B, 2500C and 2500D.

When it comes to Co-Axial, we need know about it. The Cal. 2500 was the first ever to include Co-axial escapement was invented by George Daniels on its introduction in 1999. In fact, the invention was patented by him in 1974, but some asked questions that the invention shouldn’t belong to him fully because the mechanism appeared in the pocket watches, even desk clocks in a very early stage. At least, he is a delicate improver. After all, it’s hard that the Co-Axial escapement mechanism was used in the wristwatches. There are multiple factors to consider whether the mechanism works perfectly in the wristwatch. The name of Co-Axial escapement was originated from that two-tier escapement wheels share one axle.

After the patent for the Co-Axial escapement was applied by George Daniels, he visited many watch brands and tried to persuade them to choose the mechanism. He said that the mechanism could guarantee the service without maintenance for at least 8 years, but he didn’t succeed in promoting it until he met Omega. The Co-Axial escapement was even more complicated than the lever escapement. That the Co-Axial escapement could be put into mass production required higher manufacturing accuracy at that time. There is no risk that the lever escapement went along with conservatism in the watchmaking industry.

The escapement mechanism of later version of Cal. 2500 has one more gear than Cal. 1120, a dark yellow gear. The dark yellow gear occludes the second wheel and the wheel above the escape wheel closely. The shape features of the escape wheel and the greyish white wheel above the escape wheel are different from ones of common wheels. The transmission of the pallet and the escape wheel reduces frictional force. The weight fine-tuning system improve stability and accuracy. Some questions presented during the practical operation. The modified Cal. 2500, Cal. 2500A/B, their frequency was reduced to 25,200 per hour from 28,800 per hour. However, these two issues have still not been completely resolved. One reason for this is that the coaxial structure will cause damage to the escapement part in the event of a collision, because it is inherently free from frictional cushioning. Besides, the coaxial escapement requires very high manufacturing precision, so minor damage will lead to the entire escapement to fail.

Cal. 2500D, the new model is closer to the structure of Cal. 8500. With three-tier escape wheel, Cal. 2500D ensures the escapement mechanism won’t have these questions- loose parts, dislocation, etc. Therefore, the service of 2500D calibre can be extended largely. In the future, the middle and low end wristwatches of Omega collections will use Cal. 2500D for the long term.

Generally speaking, Swiss movement is the best, and Japan movement takes the second place. The watch movement includes quartz movement and mechanical movement. Japanese electronic products are made delicately, and the high quality of Japan movement is guaranteed.

Japan Movement
Though Japan quartz movement is made at a low cost, it works accurately and has good quality, low power consumption and low maintenance cost.  As the largest watchmaker and movement manufacturer in Japan, SEIKO has inherited fine tradition of Japanese enterprise whether in industrial design or marketing. SEIKO watch attracts many ordinary people for its elegance and
fair price. SEIKO mechanical movement is praised by the majority of users, building up a high brand image. To achieve higher standard, SEIKO watch is checked and passed by extreme danger and harsh environment. The lowest on of SEIKO mechanical movements is Cal.7S26. SEIKO Cal.6R20 is an upscale movement, making SEIKO watch occupy stable position in high quality mechanical watch market.

ETA Movement
ETA is not strange for those who know lots about watch. At present, ETA which was monopolized by SWATCH is the largest manufacturer to make finished movements and semi-finished movement throughout the world. ETA SA Manufacture Horlogère Suisse which is located in Switzerland has many factories to product and assemble movements in France, Germany, Thailand, Malaysia, China and so on. ETA monopolizes more than 85% movement output, and it also supplies superior movements to many famous watch brands. ETA’s main business includes: guarantee technology research of Swiss watch; develop large scale productions of cheap parts, movements and watches; master the skills of watch and machine; assemble movements and watches in bulk; self research and development about ETA. Especially ETA2824/ETA2892/ETA7750 are widely used and praised.

In general, Swiss movement is better than Japan movement. But they include different grades of movements, it is difficult to define absolutely which is the best. Whether Swiss movement or Japan movement, good quality is guaranteed.

It is well known that the core of the watch lies in the movement, which is as important as the heart of the human body. The movement greatly determines the performance of a watch. Here a brief talk on the features of ETA movement and three types of self-made movements helps you know about watches more or less.
ETA movement
ETA SA Manufacture Horlogère Suisse is the largest manufacturer in manufacturing finished movements and semi-finished movements all over the world. ETA monopolizes more than 85% movement output in Switzerland. Though ETA movement isn’t the best, it supplies a great deal of movements to many famous watch brands. As the common movements, ETA which was born earlier could be called the mature movement since it has been developing. It indeed has incomparable stability and precise durability. Which on earth is better, ETA movement or self-made movement?
It has no definite answer for that, and mostly it depends on movement grade, your propoty and your personal opinoins.
Rolex Caliber 3135

Brand                                                Rolex
Caliber Number                          3135
Movement Type                          Automatic
Jewels                                                 31
Power Reserve                            48 hours
Vibrations                                       Per Hour 28,800
Balance                                             Glucydur
Shock System                                 KIF
Hairspring                                        Nivarox
Features Date                                at 3:00
Country of Manufacture         Switzerland
Known Models                              Submariner; Sea-Dweller, Deepsea; Yacht-Master; Datejust; Datejust II
Rolex Caliber 3135 is honoured as the king of self-winding movements. The caliber 3135 first hit the market in 1988. It is a Certified Chronometer with 31 jewels, and is adjusted for five positions and temperature. The 3135 has approximately 48 hour power reserve, however, some specs listings online have been known to incorrectly round this number up to 50 hours. It has a few design quirks, such as red anodized components, a Breguet hairspring and a winding mechanism in which the axis of the weight segment is stored in synthetic ruby (normally the rotor mechanism is embedded in steel ball bearings). The movement is installed in the models Datejust, Submariner Date, Yacht-Master and in the former model Sea-Dweller 4000, which was produced between 1988 and 2008. The successor Sea-Dweller Deepsea of 2008 also uses a 3135, but with new Parachrom blue hair spring.

Omega Caliber 8500
Brand                                                Omega
Caliber Number                          8500
Movement Type                          Automatic
Jewels                                                39
Power Reserve                             60 hours
Vibrations Per Hour                  25,200bph
Hairspring                                        Silicon Si14
Shock System                                 Nivachoc
Features                                            Co-Axial Escapement, date
Country of Manufacture         Switzerland
Known Models                              Planet Ocean; Aqua Terra Mid Size Chronometer; Co-Axial Chronometer
The launch of the 8500 series of calibres back in 2007 represented an important milestone in the history of Omega brand, helping the Biel based luxury watch producer to reposition itself in the top market range. The in-house developed 8500 series of calibres uses the co-axial escapement mechanism, benefiting from technological benefits of the Daniels’ ‘fix’. The movement’s size has been boosted by 13% compared to the previous 2500 calibres series in order to suit the design of the Omega Seamaster collection. The power supply comes from the two mainspring barrels coated with a special material known within the industry as DLC (Diamond-like carbon). This is an extra feature aimed at eliminating friction.
Patek Philippe Caliber 324
Brand                                  Patek Philippe
Caliber Number                   324SC
Movement Type                  Automatic
Display                                Analog
Jewels                                 29
Power Reserve                   45 hours
Vibrations Per Hour            28,800bph
Hairspring                           Spiromax®
Country of Manufacture      Switzerland
Patek Philippe has developed many self-made movements with high performance since it began to develop self-winding movement in 1953. In 2004, Patek Philippe upgraded Cal.315 automatic movement into Cal.324. The accuracy and stability of Caliber324 are improved by changing the operation efficiency of vibration frequency and optimizing gear. Later Caliber 324 which was equipped with Spiromax® hairspring was passed by Patek Philippe Seal. Patek Philippe Aquanaut Luce Ref.5068R Ladies’ watch and Patek Philippe Calatrava Ref.5127G men’s watch are equipped with Caliber 324SC.