If you mention the recent big event in the watch industry, it is “the 50th anniversary of the Zenith El Primero movement “. In 1969, 50 years ago, it will always be the testimony to the first step of human beings on the moon. For the watchmaking world, this year marks the beginning of a legend: Zenith released the first automatic chronograph movement for the public – El Primero (In Spanish, it means “first”), which is still considered to be a legend in the history of watchmaking even after more than half a century. Since its birth, in addition to Zenith, including Rolex, Hublot, Panerai, Daniel Roth (independent watch brand, now belongs to Bulgari), Ebel, etc., have used this unparalleled movement.
The movement vibrates 36,000 times per hour and is the world’s leading chronograph movement in precision. It is featured with a power reserve of up to 50 hours, outstanding performance and high vibration frequency echo each other. In addition, the design of the El Primero movement is also remarkably impressive, as an ingenious miniature mechanical masterpiece, with a thickness of only 6.5 mm and a diameter of 29.33 mm.Of course, this data does not allow us to intuitively understand its incredible preeminence. So as early as 1970, in order to prove and demonstrate the unbelievable excellence of El Primero movement, Zenith carried out an extra difficult test – fixed on the landing gear of Boeing 707 passenger aircraft. When the El Primero movement is landed on the Paris airport apron with the aircraft, the outdoor temperature is only 4℃. After 20 minutes, the aircraft climbed to an altitude of 10,000 meters, and the temperature dropped to 62℃, and the atmospheric pressure was only 1/4 of the ground. While landing in New York, experiencing violent shaking and violent jolts, Zenith El Primero not only maintains ultimate-high precision at the level of seconds but also maintains 36,000 vibrations per hour of regular vibration, needing no adjustment.
Since then, Zenith El Primero has become a symbol of “accuracy” in people’s minds. 42 years later, in Red Bull Stratos, 2012, Felix Baumgartner(Ultimate skydiving master, has set a number of world records of extreme skydiving) broken through the sound barrier in a free-falling manner with wearing the El Primero flyback timing 1/10 hop-second watch of Zenith. From the edge of space to the ground, after experiencing different pressures, heights, temperatures, and accelerations, it’s exceedingly amazing that the watch still keeps moving precisely.
The Zenith El Primero caliber is able to maintain precise time traveling while undergoing a variety of different extreme challenges. The El Primero movement of Zenith that has experienced many exceptional hardships and tribulations is definitely a legend that other movements can never match and compare.
If your budget is $1,000.00 or less, is a Mechanical chronograph a better choice than a quartz chronograph? There are many benefits and caveats to both types of movement. To start, let’s take a look at the chronograph. Chronographs that use a quartz movement will have a visible “tick.” You will see the second hand “tick-tock” as it moves. A mechanical chronograph’s second hand will move in a smooth, sweeping motion.
Benefits and Caveats of Quartz Chronographs
Quartz chronographs have several benefits. Quartz chronographs are battery powered and require very little maintenance except for battery changes. The batteries are usually easy to change and can be done by the wearer every few years. Additionally, quartz chronographs are generally less expensive than mechanical chronographs and are more accurate, however; quartz chronographs are not as sought after as mechanical chronographs due to the lack of craftsmanship. Quartz chronographs are more “mass-produced” than mechanical chronographs and are not as revered as their mechanical counterparts.
Benefits and Caveats of Mechanical Chronographs
There are two types of mechanical chronographs – manual and automatic. Manual mechanical chronographs use energy transferred from a wound spring. The energy stored in the spring is transferred to a series of gears that power the chronograph. A manual mechanical chronograph has to be wound by the wearer. The interval between winds could range from 24 hours to several days depending on the chronograph. While these timepieces are beautiful, the manual winding of the chronograph is a nuisance to some. Automatic mechanical chronographs harness energy through the movement of the wearer and are self-winding. They’re convenient because they don’t have to be wound, however; if they’re not worn regularly the movement will stop. If well-maintained, both automatic and manual mechanical chronographs have longer lifespans than quartz chronographs, as well as being higher-crafted timepieces.
Which Movement is the Better Choice under $1,000.00?
An automatic mechanical chronograph will be a better choice than a quartz chronograph under $1,000.00. While a quartz chronograph is an excellent timepiece, an automatic mechanical chronograph will be better made, will last longer, and lends itself to a more refined look. Additionally, there is no need to manually wind the automatic mechanical chronograph. As long as an automatic mechanical chronograph is worn regularly, the movement will continue. The automatic mechanical chronograph is a better choice than its quartz counterpart when under $1,000.00.
Are you out there preparing to attend an informal or formal meeting? If so, then you understand how important it is to accentuate your attire with a luxury, unique, and brandy jewelry. This will definitely make you outstanding amidst the crowd. There are endless such brands on the fashion market today offering remarkable jewelry pieces, but you need to be prepared to break your bank to acquire one. Tiffany jewelry is just one of them!
Of course, many people in the US cannot afford the price tag of an original Tiffany jewelry, and so turning to replicas is a meaningful and wise decision. Ekx.su gives a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to acquire that dream Tiffany jewelry without spending a fortune and still having that desired look. This website is considered as the epitome of quality, elegant, and latest Tiffany jewelry pieces such as Tiffany clone keys, Tiffany-infinity, Tiffany-T, Tiffany-bow, and so on.
More about Ekx.su E-shop USA
Ekx.su is one of the highly reputed and renowned American luxury and brandy replica jewelry online retailers. Over the years, it has been specializing in designing a variety of timeless beauty collections with amazing craftsmanship. Tiffany jewelry pieces top the list is the copy designer jewelry at this online store. These are a quality counterfeit that comes with an almost identical level of quality and design. More importantly, their price tag is only a small fraction of the genuine version.
Replica Tiffany Jewelry Keys
This is not only the hot-selling replica Tiffany series at Ekx.su, but also the globe’s top jewelry brand. Inspired by the keys in Tiffany’s collection, the said brand boasts of an iconic, classic design shining with brilliant diamond light praising the optimistic attitude about life. It enlightens one’s dreams in life besides opening endless possibilities. Because of that, the jewelry has since become an all-time celebrity choice.
That said and done, the original Tiffany key pieces are very expensive, making it a thing of the few elite people. Fortunately, Ekx.su, the leading replica Tiffany jewelry website in the US, provides the most ordinary lot the opportunity to have the high-end Tiffany Keys at low prices.
A brief comparison between Rep Vs Real Tiffany jewelry
There are indeed few differences between the original Tiffany versions and replicas at Ekx.su. Of course, the original ones are made of pure precious materials and that product is deemed to last longer, but even the replicas at the said online store are also crafted from high-quality materials. It should be noted that originals always carry a higher price tag, often not affordable to many, the copy Tiffany jewelry, like the ones sold at Ekx.su, are highly affordable since it cost only a small fraction of the genuine piece.
If the brand value, price, value preservation and precision and durability are used to evaluate, I believe that such a title will makes fans don’t have opinions. If you have a Rolex, you will support this statement. Although Rolex and Patek Philippe may not be comparable, but if 18238 and 3998 two second-hand watches, there is no box, no tens of thousands of dollars, I will choose the former, the reason is very simple: Rolex is with accurate precision and good endurance, at least the whole body is made of K gold. And the popularity and recognition are greater than the latter.
Rolex GMT-Master II
Rolex has established a good reputation because of its sturdiness and accuracy, and its good waterproof performance. It has also enhanced the brand image and value, which has become the largest brand in the global watch sales base. It is definitely the best place to display in the store. So why can Rolex be so strong? There must be conditions and reasons. From the dealer’s point of view, Rolex price control is good, profit is good, products are fast, no need to introduce too much, especially the discount is fixed, you can quickly deal without bargaining, and from the point of view of Rolex features and technology, it is also worthy of praise.
Rolex 1570 Movement
Rolex’s success is by no means accidental, accurate and durable, strong value-keeping, and high liquidity. In fact, this is the reason why we should explore it. In terms of after-sales maintenance, there is no high-end brand like magnanimity Rolex in the world, which can fully supply parts to dealers, good after-sales service, reasonable fees, and gains recognition from consumers. In fact, only Rolex can create a three-win situation for suppliers, dealers and consumers at the same time, so that it can continue to operate and continue to be a big brother. In terms of function, Rolex is not mysterious, complex, maverick, and feels good like other brands sells at a very expensive price. The general price is also mostly between 5,000 and 10,000 US dollars, which is the price that the general public can afford, so Rolex is the fastest-recovering brand after the financial turmoil.
Rolex Movements Are Equipped With Double-layer Hairspring
Precise and durable, it is synonymous with Rolex. It is finely adjusted by four precision screws on the inside of the balance wheel of the movement (two models are used), and a double-layer spring is arranged to make balance swing more isochronous, greatly improving the accuracy; of course, the most important thing is to have a good design and structure to achieve the best results.
3135 Basic Movement
Rolex’s basic movement 3135 on the inside of the balance wheel four fine-tuning screws is the brand’s innovation and style in the fine-tuning process, the screws are divided into two diagonal and two small, each screw has eight corner teeth, can be used Rolex-specific Micro-Stella to adjust. The spinner has a transparent circular scale with a triangular metal in the middle and the lighter tip always points upward. When fine-tuning the screw against the scale above the ring, just align the octagonal hole of the front end of the trimmer with the octagonal screw of the inner ring of the balance. A large one-frame for 2 seconds, a small one-frame for 1 second, this is a very precise fine-tuning mechanism, which is a fine-tuning of the balance weight. As long as the movement is normal, it is almost invulnerable.
Rolex Exclusive Micro-Stella
It is often common for a watch fan to say that his Rolex watch has a one-second error in a week. In addition, the Rolex movement also has a “axis Micro adjustment” system, the movement of this device is very rare. The role of the “Axis Micro-Tuning Screw” is that after the watch has been used for many years, if the balance is slightly worn, the Micro-tuned spacing can still maintain accurate time, which is rare in high-end brands. The Parachrom® and the Paraflex device, which are equipped with the new watch movement, are more resistant to magnetism and vibration. It’s no wonder that Rolex is the most certified brand by C.O.S.C. every year. Accuracy is the first factor, which is why so many Rolex watch fans are willing to choose it.
Rolex’s unparalleled craftsmanship is truly extraordinary. Since 2001, the men’s 3130 and women’s 2235 movements have been launched. The Oyster series movements are equipped with double-layer hairsprings, such a pioneering work is unprecedented in modern watch brands. When the mechanical watch wave was blown up again in the late 1980s, almost all movements were ring-shaped with a single layer of hairspring, which has the advantage of being mass-produced. Although it also maintains a certain quality, Rolex does not follow the trend. The upward adjustment and the full replacement of the double-layered hairspring not only represent its insistence on the watchmaking process, but also the requirements for precision. The advantage of the double-layered hairspring is that the swinging time of the balance wheel is better, and the contraction and expansion of the spring and summer springs have more space. At the same time, the force points of the various places are average, the direction difference is low, and the accuracy of the time is better. I once thought about it. I randomly selected ten brands including Rolex from the Rolex dealership, and each took out five watches. The average value was obtained under the test of the meter. Rolex’s accuracy definitely ranked first. According to my observation, the Rolex watch in three years is almost a straight line under the meter, and the size is below 0.3. This is the Rolex quality assurance.
In terms of maintaining value, the Rolex brand’s high popularity and identity status make Rolex the favorite of consumers. It is the most liquid brand in the second-hand market. It is also the fastest-changing watch in cash. Into the sports watch, now it is possible to make a small profit, if the second-hand watch is more likely to have a watch fan to take over immediately. It can be seen that it is not unreasonable for Rolex to sell so hot. Everyone is happy to buy it, second-hand market is good, after-sales service is good, consumers buy peace of mind. From the point of view of preservation, quality and function, Rolex is firmly in the position of a brother in the industry. Although the brand value of Patek Philippe is high, it is not affordable for everyone.
7040 Movement Paraflex
7040 Movement Axis Micro-Tuning Screw
Every year, the Swiss watch exhibitions are racking their brains to launch a variety of complex watches. They are afraid that they will not be able to show their strength and will be surpassed by other brands. Various composite functions and all kinds of singular watches will come out and they will be dazzling. Rolex only has to changing the color or material of the outer ring, pushing a new version is enough to surprise the audience and make the fans excited. However, despite this, Rolex still insists on quality and innovation. Like Sky-Dweller, it has won five new patents. The quality brand image it represents has already been impressive. Therefore, I am open-minded, like the price of Rolex, like the quality of Rolex, as well as the high value, rapid liquidity and reasonable price for maintenance, the world can not find a second brand, I believe that all consumers agree with this statement.
Today, let’s talk about the basic knowledge of watch shock resistance that you should know.
First of all, let’s look at the structure and principle of the watch shock absorber. By installing a shock absorber on the swing shaft of the watch, it becomes a shock-resistance watch. In order to improve the vibration accuracy of the balance spring system, the use of a finer shaft diameter is one of the effective measures. The pinch fine energy reduces the frictional resistance of the balance wheel movement, but the thinner journal is easily broken, and the shock absorber is a reasonable device to overcome this disadvantage.
The shock absorber is composed of anti-vibration pedestal, shockproof bowl, spherical arc hole drill, support drill, anti-vibration spring and other main components. The shockproof bowl and the shockproof pedestal are matched by a cone surface, and the anti-vibration spring presses the shockproof bowl by the drill. When the shockproof bowl is off center, due to the elastic force of the anti-vibration spring, the shockproof bowl slides along the smooth cone of the shock pedestal to the original position, this is called the reset performance of the shock absorber and is an important indicator for checking the quality of the shock absorber. Each watch is equipped with two shock absorbers, a shock absorber is on the swing plate, and the other shock absorber is on the main plate. The upper shock absorber is fixed on the swinging plate with a U-shaped pin, and the lower shock absorber is directly pressed into the slot of the main clamping plate. Their structural principles are identical, but the thickness of the drill is different, and the upper anti-drill is 0.09 mm thicker than the lower anti-trailer.
Then, let’s take a look at how the shock absorber protects the pendulum shaft from being broken. It is divided into the following three cases. First, when the watch falls horizontally on the ground, the swing shaft has an axial impact force, causing the swing shaft to move in the axial direction, and the swing shaft moves the drill upwards until the end of the swing shaft contacts the shock mount. During this process, the drill moves upwards to deform the anti-vibration spring. The elastic force of the anti-vibration spring will hinder the rapid movement of the pendulum shaft, and the last remaining impact force will be borne by the end face of the pendulum shaft. Therefore, the force of the anti-vibration spring must be matched with the force that the pendulum journal can withstand. If the anti-vibration spring is too hard during the heat treatment, the pendulum shaft is easily broken when subjected to an external force in this direction.
In the second case, when the watch is dropped vertically on the ground, the pendulum shaft is subjected to a radial impact force, which causes the pendulum shaft to move in the radial direction, and drives the shockproof bowl to move upward along the anti-vibration pedestal cone until the pendulum shaft cylindrical surface contacts the anti-vibration pedestal, the movement stops. Due to the upward movement of the anti-vibration bowl, the anti-vibration spring is deformed, and the movement of the pendulum shaft is also buffered and weakened, and the remaining impact force is borne by the cylindrical surface. In the manufacturing process, if the smoothness of the contact surface between the shockproof bowl and the shockproof pedestal cannot meet the design requirements, the shockproof bowl cannot move upward along the anti-vibration pedestal cone, and the swing journal is easily broken.
In the third case, when the watch is tilted and dropped on the ground, the swing shaft is subjected to an axial and radial mixed impact force, and the above two buffers simultaneously act to weaken the swing shaft motion, and finally the end surface and the cylindrical surface simultaneously bear the remaining impact. Shock absorbers generally come into play when the components of the shock absorber are fully compliant with tolerances. However, the performance of the shock absorber is limited. When the impact force of the watch is large, beyond the effective range, the pendulum shaft, the shock absorber and other components may be damaged.
Then, I will introduce the automatic turning shockproof bowl, anti-vibration pedestal processing. The turning shockproof bowl and the shockproof pedestal are made of lead brass, and the main process is completed on a single-axis slitting automatic lathe. The processing of the anti-vibration spring and the U-shaped pin is based on the stamping of the mold on a precision punching machine, and then deburring, heat treatment, and electroplating. The anti-shock bowl and the anti-vibration seat must be equipped with the required cam according to the shape and dimensional accuracy of each surface, and the tasks of each tool are assigned to determine the processing sequence and adjustment method. Since both the drill and the shockproof bowl rely on the pressure of the anti-vibration spring and are positioned by the taper on the outside of the shockproof bowl and the taper inside the shock mount, the taper finish of both is required to be above 12, and the dimensional accuracy is also high. It is best to use a diamond knife to turn.
Introduction to milling slots. The groove shape of the upper and lower shock absorbers can be divided into the back groove and the surface groove, and can be processed on the horizontal milling machine. The horizontal slot milling machine is manual or automatic. The automatic slot milling machine is mainly equipped with automatic feeder and pusher. Through the clamping and cam action of the clamp, the watch automatically sends the workpiece to the milling driven by the motor. The required groove shape is milled out on the knife, and the milling cutter is made of cemented carbide according to the groove size. The machine tool has a simple structure, but only one or two processes can be completed during the machining process. Due to the continuous reform of machine tools and equipment by workers and technicians, a new multi-station milling machine has been successfully trial-produced. It can automatically process the back, groove and chamfer on the shock absorber and automatically check it, distinguishing between the qualified and unqualified parts of the finished product.
Finally, introduce the assembly of the shock absorber. The assembly of the shock absorber is manual. Before assembly, the shock absorber seat, bowl, spring, etc. are first tested by electroplating and finished products. Both the arc hole drill and the support drill should be treated with oil-proof diffusion and then flow into the assembly department. For the mass assembly of the shock absorber, some vibrating discharge tools should be used. Although it is still a manual operation, it is very efficient.
When it comes to ETA, there are a lot of friends who don’t know what ETA is. Maybe you often hear the letters “ETA”, but don’t know what ETA means? In fact, this is the meaning of the EAT movement. ETA is the world’s largest manufacturer of finished and semi-finished movements. Let’s take a look at the detailed introduction of the EAT movement.
The ETA movement is the cornerstone of Swatch, and its history dates back to the end of the 18th century: a watch factory established in 1793. In 1855, another factory specializing in the manufacture of “Ebauches (semi-finished watch movements)” was opened. It was later named ETA.
As one of the world’s largest manufacturers of watches and movements, its annual output has exceeded 100 million. ETA’s main business is: to ensure the technical research of Swiss watches; to develop accessories for low-cost & large-scale production of movements and whole watches; to master all the technologies of watches and production machines; to assemble movements and watches in batches; ETA self-research and Development.
The ETA movement’s professional skills are consistent and balanced, and it is quite good in terms of stability and durability, and accuracy in travel time. Some people have done statistics. Today, more than 85% of Swiss watches on the market use ETA movements. Among some Swiss brands, such as Ulysse Nardin, IWC, Hublot, Breitling, Panerai, Chopard, Tudor, TAG Heuer, Baume & Mercier, Longines, Titoni, Hamilton, Mido, Tissot, Certina, etc., all of which can be found the trace of in ETA movements.
As one of the world’s largest manufacturers of watch movements, the ETA movement has a strong technical precipitation and strength, and basically covers all the functions of the watch! ETA movements have many models, which are well-known in terms of accuracy, stability and durability. There are five major ETA classic movements.
Now introduce 2892A2, which is considered the ace of ETA2892-2. ETA2892A2 was born in 1980, positioned as a mid-to-high end. The movement is only with 3.6 mm thickness. In terms of thickness alone, the ETA2892A2 movement is far ahead of most of the self-produced movements on the market. In addition to a few brands featuring ultra-thin, there are few automatic winding movements with an organic core thickness of less than 3.6 mm. Due to the excellent performance and precise travel time of the ETA2892A2, the models equipped with this movement are often sold at a high price. A timepiece is with high artistic value. It not only has timekeeping, appreciation and preservation, but also personal taste and identity. Some people pursue brand awareness, and some pay attention to its complexity.
Due to its excellent design and high stability, it is widely used by various brands. The 2892A2 movements has a higher grades. It is often used by well-known mid-priced brands in higher-end models, especially the Chronometer. Even some brands that are listed in the premium watch used, too, but they pay more attention to polished and carved workmanship. At the same time, ETA2892 is one of the most sophisticated and stable models recognized by all watchmakers. It is equipped with a ring-shaped balance wheel, 21 stones, two-way automatic winding, 28800 vibrations per hour, with an “eccentric screw trimmer” for precise fine-tuning.
Because the quality is good, just a little bit can be transformed into a well-designed movement, even the recent popular OMEGA coaxial escapement watch also used the machine that was modified to 1120 based on 2892, and then modified. In addition to the escapement system, the speed is adjusted by the two weight screws on the inner side of the balance wheel. The OMEGA number is 2500, and the number of rubies is increased from 23 (in the 1120) to 27, and four more are installed separately in pallet, balance wheel and transmission wheel (2 pieces). Like the ULYSSE NARDIN watch, the timepiece trilogy set astronomical watch also uses 2892 as the basic movement, becoming an ultra-small and complex astronomical watch, called the greatest masterpiece of the ULYSSE NARDIN watch. In Cartier, IWC, Longines, Montblanc, Ball, Juvenia and other brands, you can often find the ETA2892-2 movement.
The ETA7750 is another proud model. Its predecessor was the Valjoux 7750; Valjoux is a well-known movement manufacturer, especially famous for its complex chronograph movement. The ROLEX manual winding Daytona is equipped with its 72 movement, making it a hot watch today. Valjoux 7750 was created in 1974. It was originally designed with only 17 stones and was later changed to 25 stones. After the acquisition of ETA in the 1980s, few people now use the term Valjoux, unless those movements produced before the merger in the 1980s used the old name. ETA 7750 was released on July 1, 1974, and became the model that ETA is proud of. It has been used in various brands of self-winding chronographs and complex function watches for many years. The standard 7750 features 17 rubies, 42 hours of energy storage, 28,800 vibrations per hour, a one-way winding design, the same fine-tuning device with the same principle as the eccentric screw, and a scale indicator for fine-tuning operation.
If the ETA2892A2 is customized for the high-end market, then the ETA2824-2 is designed to meet the darling of the low-end market. The structure of the ETA2824-2 is slightly thicker than the ETA2892A2. The upper chain is simpler than the ETA2892A2, and the three screws fixed changes to a single screw. This method lets the ETA2824-2 never have the drawback of insufficient winding.
The self-winding movement with a calendar equipped in this watch was introduced in the 1970s, with a diameter of 25.6 mm and a thickness of 4.6 mm. It contains 25 jewel bearings and has 38 hours of power reserve. The jewel bearing, also known as artificial ruby, has a very hard texture. The Moh’s scale of hardness is up to 9, second only to diamonds. It is mainly used in the shaft end, the pawl and the escapement parts of the movement, which has the effect of reducing friction. At the same time, it also has aesthetic decoration.
Based on the ETA2824-2, the movement is “transformed” and becomes ETA2834-2 or ETA2836-2 after the calendar and the week module are installed. According to blogger’s experience, if a watch equipped with an ETA movement has a day and calendar window at 3 o’clock, most of it is ETA2836-2, and if the day time is separated from the calendar, such as the week window is at 12 o’clock, the calendar window is at the 3 o’clock or 6 o’clock position, it is mostly ETA 2834-2. ETA2824-2 and its derivative movements are often seen in many popular Swiss brands such as Tissot, Mido, Plum, Tudor, TAG Heuer, Baume, Breitling, Hamilton and other brands. They are generally polished on the oscillating weight and engraved with the brand logo.
Unitas’ classic 6497, originally used for pocket watches, is a hand-wound movement. After being acquired by ETA, it was naturally classified under the ETA. After the quartz storm that suffocated the Swiss in the 1980s, the 6497 became the last large-size pocket watch movement. In the circumstances, the 6497 was difficult to use, since it is too big. Every dog has its day, this calibre achieves a considerable height in terms of precision with its own “big appearance”, and it is simple in structure and easy to maintain. Originally the movement was unknown, the 6497 ushered in its own spring, because the big size watch was coming, and with the rise of Panerai, the size of the 6497 catered to the needs of almost all large cases. Because the 6497 is large and reasonable in structure, it is surprisingly accurate in terms of accuracy. Although it is only a low-frequency pendulum of 18000A/H, it can easily pass the COSC certification, and many other high-frequency movements are defeated. It can be said that ETA6497 has its current status, Panerai is indispensable.
ETA7001 can be said to be a summary of the traditional Swiss watch road. It is also a hand-wound movement, but looks small and exquisite, unlike the 6497. Since the size of the 7001 is much smaller than 6497, the swing frequency is also raised from 18000A/H of the 6497 to 21600A/H. Some people always think that it is more perfect to reduce the swing frequency of the 7001 from 21600A/H to 18000A/H.
Like the classic combination of the ETA2892A2 and the ETA2824-2, the ETA7001 is a great complement to the field of small-calibre hand-wound movements. People have to admire the power of the ETA movement since it firmly controls the movement of the watch.
If Breguet, Glashutte Original, Omega, Jaquet Droz and other brands are the top brands of the Swatch Group and prop up the entire Swatch Group, then ETA is the real reinforced concrete foundation within the entire group. ETA is not only responsible for the development of the movement itself, but also responsible for the design and development of its own production equipment. From ideas, to design, R&D, a small amount of testing, mass production, and to quality control, ETA controls the entire process in an orderly manner.
The mechanical movement is unfamiliar to ordinary people. The reason is that we usually only pay attention to the appearance of the mechanical watch, but it is not very concerned about the movement of the internal use. Below I will introduce how to judge the structural composition of this mechanical watch movement and its quality.
The first step, when you get the movement of a mechanical watch, just like the person you have never met, just look at the person’s appearance, then look at his dress, you can preliminarily judge his literacy and taste; and the initial feeling of the movement is exactly the same, give a first look at its appearance, and then look at each of its splinters and each transmission part of the processing level that is fine or not, the decorative texture is symmetrical or not, so you can know whether the movement is a fine product from the appearance, and thus can judge the design concept and the fineness of the manufacturing, and vice versa, the parts are rough, even the appearance is distorted, so the performance of the very ugly movement is well known.
3255 Mechanical Movement
The second step, when the movement is in the stop state, you can first rotate the arbor to wind the movement, while observing the balance spring system and the escapement, when you turn a circle up to three laps (Swiss movement in one turn is enough) the balance spring system and the escapement start and start up. This step is to test the performance of the main drive train of this movement. If it cannot be started normally, the main reason is because the movement main drive wheel has a problem with the polarization of the balance spring system.
Glashütte Original Self-winding 89-02 Movement
The third step, if the balance spring system and the escapement are activated and running normally, you can continue to rotate the stem to wind the movement, and there are some points to note. The first thing is that your winding feel should be comfortable, without difficult and uneven feeling, the second is to pay attention to listen to the sound of string, which is should also be symmetrical and can not have the sound of caries, the last thing to note is that the number of windings can not be too much, generally around 20 rounds, this step is to test the performance of the winding of this movement.
A. Lange & Söhne L951.6 Manual-winding Movement
The fourth step, pull out the stem to the second gear, which is the calendar fast shift of this movement. At this time, pay attention to the shifting of the stem to the second gear, the gear should be clear and you can obviously feel it is in place. Then turn the arbor to quickly dial the calendar ring. At this time, the important point to be investigated is that the calendar ring is driven by the fast-dial gear teeth. Each tooth should be skipped with a rhythm. If there is no rhythm like the swallowing, the calendar part is explained that there is a problem.
Piaget Mechanical Movement
The fifth step, continue to issue the arbor to the third gear, which is the needle shift of the movement. When the shank is turned, the minute hand is moved. At this time, it is necessary to pay attention to the string, but it is still better. However, it should be observed that there will be errors when the two hands overlap to the 12 o’clock position. If you are interested, you can continue to rotate the arbor to keep the hour and minute hands rotating for 24 hours, note that the calendar ring will jump once. The main purpose is to examine the performance status of the calendar mechanism in the actual operation rather than fast-moving.
The sixth step, test the performance of the automatic train of this movement, the simplest way is to pay attention to the natural drooping position of the automatic tow, and then rotate the movement vertically, if the automatic totem keeps the orientation unchanged, which explains that the automatic rider system has flexible performance, that is the most important part of the automatic part.
If the movement is divided into two structures, the active drive train and the auxiliary drive train, the active drive train is the main line, and the auxiliary drive train is connected to the main drive train and integrated into it.
The active drive train also includes four systems, namely the prime mover, the transmission wheel train, the escapement and the vibration mechanism.
All power is sent from the original system spring to the center wheel, the over wheel, the second wheel, the escape wheel, the clip, and then to the balance wheel, and then the balance reaction force to the escapement fork to restore its previous position, so the whole process can be repeated. To put it simply, the energy stored in the motive system is transmitted to the vibration system through the escapement and lasts for a long period of time. At the same time, the vibration system is released to the escapement mechanism and transmitted to the pointer mechanism to indicate the time.
The original motion system consists of a barrel, a strip cover, a spring, and a spring roller. The function is to store the elastic potential energy generated by tightening the spring as energy. In the operation of the movement, the spring energy releases the elastic energy to the mechanical energy, thereby driving the wheel train to rotate, and maintaining the vibration system to periodically replenish the vibration without attenuating the vibration, and at the same time driving the movement of the display system and the additional mechanism.
The transmission wheel train is mainly composed of a center wheel (two wheels), an over wheel (three wheels), and a second wheel (four wheels). To put it bluntly, it is a mechanical transmission that uses gear teeth to mesh with each other to transmit power and motion. The movement’s transmission wheel train is divided into two types, the positive center transmission form and the off-center transmission form. The center wheel (two wheels) is determined by the position of the main plate of the movement.
The function of the escapement system is to periodically and regularly replenish the energy transmitted by the train to the vibration system to maintain it as a non-attenuating vibration. In addition, it accurately calculates the number of vibrations of the vibration system. The escape wheel controls the display system through the gears such as the second wheel to achieve the purpose of measuring time.
The vibration system is a balance spring system. If the time (vibration period) required for the balance spring vibration system to complete a full vibration is determined and the number of vibrations is calculated, then the time experienced by the vibration is equal to the vibration period multiplied. The number of vibrations, that is, time = vibration period × number of vibrations. The vibration system and the escapement system are also referred to as speed control systems.
The auxiliary drive train includes a display system and a winding hand system.
The display system is interfaced with and integrated into the active drive train, including the most basic display trains, such as the hour wheel, the minute wheel and the second wheel, as well as the cross wheel responsible for converting the rotational speed. Since the transmission wheel train is divided into a positive center transmission form and a partial center transmission form. Therefore, the display system transmission mode is also divided into a positive center display system and a partial center display system.
The wound plucking needle system can be separately understood. The wound is to transfer energy to the prime mover, and the plucking pin is the mechanism for cocking the pointer. This mechanism includes not only the movement of the hour and minute hands, but also the display parts of the additional mechanism carried by the drive core, such as the calendar and the weekly calendar. By the crown, the stem, the vertical wheel, the clutch wheel, the clutch lever, the clutch lever spring, the pull gear, the compression spring, the setting wheel, the span wheel, the hour wheel, the minute wheel, the large steel wheel, the small steel wheel, the pawl, the pawl spring and other components. The automatic winding is composed of a heavy hammer, a heavy hammer support, an eccentric shaft, a ball, an automatic rocking plate, a ratchet, a pawl, and an automatic upper plate.
The basic structure of the movement should have a preliminary understanding. In the next section we will focus on the key parts and principles of the various structures of the movement.
Everything is inseparable from the foundation. I always think that the watch movement is the same. For example, Patek Philippe’s basic movement cal.324, based on the addition of various functional modules, has created various functions based on cal.324 or complex movements (such as Cal.324 S IRM QA LU, is the addition of the power reserve, perpetual calendar window date display and moon phase). Therefore, a basic movement is very important for a watchmaking brand, and a basic movement as thin as possible and small means that it can add more functions.
The basic movements of various models from various brands have different characteristics, but the basic structural principles are similar. The energy is stored in the spring by a winding or an automatic pendulum, and the energy is transmitted to the oscillating system through the escapement for a long working period. At the same time, the oscillating system is released to the constant velocity movement of the escapement and transmitted to the pointer mechanism to indicate the time.
Recently, I got a few of the watches with the calendar display function equipped with the automatic original movement, the movement reference is not mentioned, let us have a glimpse.
Let’s first talk about the disassembly tool. First, you need a special magnifying glass. Since the parts of the watch are exquisite, so the purpose of the magnifier is to make each parts be visible to prevent damage during disassembly and assembly. It is usually necessary to prepare 3 to 12 times a magnifying glass of different magnifications, but this time I only disassembled the parts, so a low multiple prepared is enough.
Movement Fixed Base
The fixed seat is to fix movement, making it easy to disassemble. You need to lock gently, don’t use too much force to avoid hurting the board.
The whole set of special screwdrivers will be available on the work table of each watchmaker. There are different combinations of 10, 9 and bulk. You can replace the blade by loosening the screw fixing hole on the screwdriver. Each knife has a color to distinguish the specifications, and the outer circle number represents the diameter of the knife. Use the size of the screw first and select the appropriate size, so as not to damage the screw cap or accidentally slip the hand to scratch the board.
The tamper-resistant tweezers are also necessary. When the parts are gripped, the parts are protected from magnetism. Usually 2 to 3 pieces are enough. Thicker tips are usually used to pick up general parts such as movements, splints, screws, gears, etc. Small parts are usually used with thinner tips. Do not use too much force. When picking up parts, do not pinch the plane. It is best to find the appropriate place to pick it in a vertical way to prevent the parts from being scratched by improper force.
I got a separate movement this time, and there is no hands. Therefore, there are fewer steps in disassembly, no need to open the bottom cover, and there is no need to pull the pointer. But let’s introduce it here.
Universal Watch Opener
Watch Hands Puller
The opener can be used to open the screw-in bottom cover, adjust the opener to the appropriate size of the watch, press it and rotate it to the left to open the back cover. It is better to use it with the watch fixed base. The hand puller is used to remove the pointer, and there are also unused hand pullers depending on the model.
The importance of the movement for the entire watch is well known, and without the movement, the watch will not work. What are the movements of the watches? Just follow the blogger to have a profound understanding about watch movements knowledge in different types.
Manual Winding Movement,the earliest movement spring must be through “human intervention”, the wearer must manually rotate the clockwork on the crown to work normally, usually winding up in 24 hours. The hand-wound movement was also the earliest machine, and its ancestors used it on pocket watches as early as the 15th century. It is now also used by some high-end brands, but more wearers always forget the “winding” so that “stopping” their time.
The Self-winding(Automatic) Movement is wound by the motion of the watch. Through a swinging oscillating operation, the spring of the watch is slowly tightened, and the watch realizes the effect of “self-running”. The self-winding movement is now the choice of most mechanical watches. As long as it is worn every day, there is no need to wind up, and the hairspring that is evenly stretched with the movement is more conducive to the accuracy of time.
When it comes to Quartz Movements, we must first mention the “quartz crisis” of the 1970s and 1980s. It was the birth of it that shocked the entire Swiss watch industry, causing many European mechanical watch factories to declare bankruptcy, ending uptheir watchmaking careers, it is also precisely because of its existence urging the birth of the “Swatch” watch, it can be said that a generation is stronger than a generation.
The quartz movement, which was made by W.A Mason in the 1920s, was later put into production by the Japanese SEIKO Company in 1969. Its low cost, extremely high accuracy time and more additional features have become people’s the first choice when purchasing watches, and it has also caused a huge impact on the mechanical watches that have been used for a long time.
In fact, the principle of the quartz movement is that the balance without oscillation is used as a metronome, but only a quartz oscillator, which oscillates through electric energy (battery). There are a lot of women’s models choosing quartz movements from the perspective of thickness and aesthetics.
The self-produced movement of the watchmaking workshop may be a manual winding movement, or it may be an automatic movement, which refers to the key parts of the movement, such as the main clamping plate, the bridge and the splint, all of them areself-produced by the workshop themselves, so they can name the model by themselves.
The Swatch Group’s ETA movement was the main supplier of many brands before, but in 2002, Swatch Group announced that it would no longer supply ETA’s blank movement (many brands will use ETA’s blank movement to process, then advocating it is a self-produced movement), which led to the emergence of many watchmaking workshops.
ETA, the full name of ETA SA Manufacture Horlogère Suisse, is a Swiss manufacturer of blank movements, including mechanical/quartz watches and clock movements, which is owned by the Swiss Swatch Group, the world’s largest watch group, ETA itself was merged and acquired by a number of movement factories, including the famous Adolf Schild (AS), Valjoux, Unitas and so on.
ETA’s main product is focused on mechanical movements, and many different types are produced. In addition to the Swatch Group’s watch brands (such as Longines, Omega, Swatch and Tissot), it is also a supplier of watch manufacturers’ movements. For example, Breitling, Fortis, Innag, Plum, etc., even Rolex, ETA movements have appeared in their products (Rolex used the Valjoux movement in its Daytona series), while IWC, Oris, TAG Heuer and Tudor and others used a movement modified based on the ETA movement.
Miyota is the manufacturer of the blank movement under the Japan Citizen Watch, one of the world’s largest blank clock manufacturers. Established in 1959, the name is “Miyota Precision Co. Ltd.” In 1991, it was renamed Miyota Co. Ltd. In 2005, through the exchange of equipment, it became a subsidiary of Citizen Watch, and changed its name to the current one.
Miyota’s main products are quartz or mechanical watch movements, quartz crystal oscillators, LCD backlights, CMOS sensors and micro LCDs.
Through the knowledge of these movements, it can be seen that no matter which kind of movement, the core of the watch’s aura and life is given, and the hundreds of wheel trains and parts inside are meticulously matched, so that the watch can keep running.